Deploy C2D

This chapter will present how to deploy the C2D component of the Ocean stack. As mentioned in the C2D Architecture chapter, the Compute-to-Data component uses Kubernetes to orchestrate the creation and deletion of the pods in which the C2D jobs are run.

For the ones that do not have a Kubernetes environment available, we added to this guide instructions on how to install Minikube, which is a lightweight Kubernetes implementation that creates a VM on your local machine and deploys a simple cluster containing only one node. In case you have a Kubernetes environment in place, please skip directly to step 4 of this guide.


  • Communications: a functioning internet-accessible provider service

  • Hardware: a server capable of running compute jobs (e.g. we used a machine with 8 CPUs, 16 GB Ram, 100GB SSD, and a fast internet connection). See this guide for how to create a server;

  • Operating system: Ubuntu 22.04 LTS


Install Docker and Git

sudo apt update
sudo apt install git
sudo usermod -aG docker $USER && newgrp docker

Install Minikube

wget -q --show-progress
sudo dpkg -i minikube_1.22.0-0_amd64.deb

Start Minikube

The first command is important and solves a PersistentVolumeClaims problem.

minikube config set kubernetes-version v1.16.0
minikube start --cni=calico --driver=docker --container-runtime=docker

Depending on the number of available CPUs, RAM, and the required resources for running the job, consider adding options --cpu, --memory, and --disk-size to avoid runtime issues.

For other options to run minikube refer to this link

Install the Kubernetes command line tool (kubectl)

curl -LO "$(curl -L -s"
curl -LO "$(curl -L -s"
echo "$(<kubectl.sha256) kubectl" | sha256sum --check

sudo install -o root -g root -m 0755 kubectl /usr/local/bin/kubectl

Wait until all the defaults are running (1/1).

watch kubectl get pods --all-namespaces

Download all required files

Create a folder, cd into it, and clone the following repositories:

mkdir computeToData
cd computeToData
git clone
git clone

Create namespaces

In this tutorial, we are going to create only one environment, called ocean-compute.

kubectl create ns ocean-operator
kubectl create ns ocean-compute

Setup up Postgresql

For now, communication between different components is made through pgsql. This will change in the near future.

Edit operator-service/kubernetes/postgres-configmap.yaml. Change POSTGRES_PASSWORD to a nice long random password.

Then deploy pgsql

kubectl config set-context --current --namespace ocean-operator
kubectl create -f operator-service/kubernetes/postgres-configmap.yaml
kubectl create -f operator-service/kubernetes/postgres-storage.yaml
kubectl create -f operator-service/kubernetes/postgres-deployment.yaml
kubectl create -f operator-service/kubernetes/postgresql-service.yaml

Congrats, pgsql is running now.

Run the IPFS host (optional)

To store the results and the logs of the C2D jobs, you can use either an AWS S3 bucket or IPFS.

In case you want to use IPFS you need to run an IPFS host, as presented below.

export ipfs_staging=~/ipfs_staging
export ipfs_data=~/ipfs_data

docker run -d --name ipfs_host -v $ipfs_staging:/export -v $ipfs_data:/data/ipfs -p 4001:4001 -p 4001:4001/udp -p -p ipfs/go-ipfs:latest

sudo /bin/sh -c 'echo "    youripfsserver" >> /etc/hosts'

Update the storage class

The storage class is used by Kubernetes to create the temporary volumes on which the data used by the algorithm will be stored.

Please ensure that your class allocates volumes in the same region and zone where you are running your pods.

You need to consider the storage class available for your environment.

For Minikube, you can use the default 'standard' class.

In AWS, we created our own 'standard' class:

kubectl get storageclass standard -o yaml
- matchLabelExpressions:
    - key:
          - us-east-1a
kind: StorageClass
    fsType: ext4
    type: gp2
reclaimPolicy: Delete
volumeBindingMode: Immediate

For more information, please visit

If you need to use your own classes, you will need to edit 'operator_engine/kubernetes/operator.yml'.

Setup C2D Orchestrator

C2D Orchestrator (aka operator-service) has two main functions:

  • First, it's the outside interface of your C2D Cluster to the world. External components(like Provider) are calling APIs exposed by this

  • Secondly, operator-service manages multiple environments and sends the jobs to the right environment.

Edit operator-service/kubernetes/deployment.yaml. Change ALLOWED_ADMINS to a nice long random password.

Let's deploy C2D Orchestrator.

kubectl config set-context --current --namespace ocean-operator
kubectl apply -f operator-service/kubernetes/deployment.yaml

Now, let's expose the service.

kubectl expose deployment operator-api --namespace=ocean-operator --port=8050

You can run a port forward in a new terminal (see below) or create your ingress service and setup DNS and certificates (not covered here):

kubectl -n ocean-operator port-forward svc/operator-api 8050

Alternatively you could use another method to communicate between the C2D Environment and the provider, such as an SSH tunnel.

And now it's time to initialize the database.

If your Minikube is running on

curl -X POST "" -H "accept: application/json" -H "Admin: myAdminPass"

(where myAdminPass is configured in Setup C2D Orchestrator)

Congrats, you have operator-service running.

Setup your first environment

Let's create our first environment. Edit operator-service/kubernetes/deployment.yaml.

  • set OPERATOR_PRIVATE_KEY. This has to be unique among multiple environments. In the future, this will be the account credited with fees.

  • optionally change more env variables, to customize your environment. Check the README section of the operator engine to customize your deployment. At a minimum, you should add your IPFS URLs or AWS settings, and add (or remove) notification URLs.

Finally, let's deploy it:

kubectl config set-context --current --namespace ocean-compute
kubectl create -f operator-service/kubernetes/postgres-configmap.yaml
kubectl apply  -f operator-engine/kubernetes/sa.yml
kubectl apply  -f operator-engine/kubernetes/binding.yml
kubectl apply  -f operator-engine/kubernetes/operator.yml

Optional: For production enviroments, it's safer to block access to metadata. To do so run the below command:

kubectl -n ocean-compute apply -f /ocean/operator-engine/kubernetes/egress.yaml

Congrats,your c2d environment is running.

If you want to deploy another one, just repeat the steps above, with a different namespace and different OPERATOR_PRIVATE_KEY.

Update Provider

Update your existing provider service by updating the operator_service.url value in config.ini, or set the appropiate ENV variable.

operator_service.url =

Restart your provider service.

Automated deployment example

If your setup is more complex, you can checkout (our automated deployment example)[]. This script is used by barge to automaticly deploy the C2D cluster, with two environments.

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